• Social Support Scale for Children and Adolescents

  • Ages 8 to 18

    Harter, 1985

    This instrument taps social support or approval from four sources: Parents, Teachers, Close  Friends, and Classmates.  It was initially developed to examine Cooley’s (2003) looking-glass self formulation which posited that approval from significant others is a major source of global self-esteem or self-worth. However, it can be utilized for any research questions in which social support or approval is relevant.

     Note that if other sources are relevant to a given investigator’s research questions (e.g., siblings, mother vs. father, counselors, coaches, team members) then these can be added or substituted.

  • Social Support for Children

    Manual in PDF format

  • Dimensions of Depression Profile

  • For Children and Adolescents

    Harter, Nowakowski, and Marold, 2012 

    (This is a revision of the original instrument by Harter & Nowakowski, 1987.)

    This instrument taps six theoretically-derived dimensions of depression:  Affect (cheerful to depressed), Self-worth, Hope/hopelessness, Energy Level, Self-Blame, and Suicidal ideation (30 items).  It employs our Structured Alternative Question Format.  It provides a Profile across these six dimensions, giving a more differentiated pattern of scores which can be useful for research or clinical purposes, in contrast to instruments that provide only a single composite score.

     It is recommended that all six subscales be administered given that different profiles have different diagnostic and predictive implications, as described in the manual.

  • Depression.pdf

    Manual in PDF format

  • Scale of Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Orientation

  • For Use in the Classroom

    Ages 8 to 18

    Harter, 1981

    This instrument taps five dimensions, the first three of which are more motivational in nature: Preference for Challenge vs. Preference for Easy Work, Curiosity/Interest vs. Doing what the Teacher Assigns, and Independent Mastery vs. Dependence on the Teacher.  Two other subscales tap more informational or knowledge-based dimensions, namely Independent Judgment vs. Reliance on the Teacher’s Judgment and Internal Criteria for Success/Failure vs. External Criteria for Success/Failure.  Researchers or educators may select or lift individual subscales for their own purposes, as long as each subscale is kept intact (total of 30 items).  This instrument may be particularly relevant for those investigators interested in intervention research designed to promote more intrinsic motivation, consistent with the current emphasis on learner-centered approaches to education.

  • Scale of Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Orientation

    Manual in PDF format

  • Scale of Relational Self-Worth for Adolescents

  • Harter, 1998

    This instrument grew out of our observations that, beginning in adolescence, individuals have a sense of how their self-worth can differ, depending upon the particular relational context.  Factor analysis supports four relational contexts: Around Parents, Around Male Classmates, Around Female Classmates, Around Close Friends (16 items).

     Investigators are free to substitute or add other relational contexts if they are more relevant to their particular research question. This instrument may be appropriate for adult populations, although we have not addressed this in our own research.

  • Level of Adolescent Voice

  • Harter, 1998/2000

    This questionnaire emerged from our research on true versus false self behavior, which we have demonstrated is primarily manifest in how one expresses one’s thoughts, opinions, and feelings, verbally.  It has much in common with Gilligan’s construct of “voice.”  However, our approach differs in that we have documented that an adolescent’s level of voice differs across relational contexts.  The instrument taps four such contexts: Voice with Parents, Teachers, Male Classmates, Female Classmates (20 items).

     Investigators are free to substitute or add other relational contexts if they are more relevant to their particular research question.


    Manual for Level of Voice 1.14.19.pdf

This portfolio last updated: 21-Jul-2021 1:56 PM